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A Shift from Memorization to Conceptual Understanding


Article written by Rob Dickson on LinkedIn and crossposted with permission.


Last night, we celebrated my daughter Bailey's 21st birthday with a grand celebration. It was a unique moment as friends from various stages of our life came together to mark the occasion. During the festivities, we had the pleasure of catching up with an old friend who now teaches at Emporia State University and specializes in instructing incoming teachers. Our chat was mostly centered around ChatGPT and how it's shaping the landscape of communication. It was a fascinating discussion about how technology is transforming our world. We kept coming back to the question, “What’s the need for memorization in education?” A tough question to answer, even for those of us who have been in education for 20+ years.


Memorization has been a long-debated concept in the field of education. While some argue that it has no practical significance in today's world and that it is a waste of time, others believe that it plays a crucial role in the learning process. Memorization helps students to retain information, which can be beneficial in a variety of ways. For instance, it can help them to recall important facts and details during exams and in real-world scenarios. Additionally, memorization can improve students' cognitive abilities and enhance their critical thinking skills. It can also help them to develop a stronger understanding of complex concepts and theories. However, it is important to note that memorization should not be the sole focus of education. Rather, it should be used as a tool to aid the learning process and to supplement other educational methods. Ultimately, the need for memorization in education will depend on the subject matter, the learning objectives, and the individual student's needs and preferences.


Large Language Models such as ChatGPT, Bing Chat and Bard have transformed the way we learn and access information, shaking the very foundations of education. With these models, machines can now learn from colossal text data and spit out human-like responses, even creating new content. But, does this mean we can finally bid farewell to memorization and wave in a new era of technology-fueled learning?


On the one hand, these models can be a tremendous learning asset, providing instant access to a wealth of information and freeing up time for higher-level thinking skills like analysis and synthesis. So, why bother memorizing when we can just ask the machine?

However, relying solely on these models might stunt the development of critical thinking and recall abilities. Memorization is crucial for cementing knowledge and boosting information retrieval. Plus, while these models can provide accurate answers, they might not always understand the context or provide a deeper understanding of the subject matter.


A balanced approach is key: let's embrace technology while keeping traditional learning methods in check. This way, we can develop a more effective education system that nurtures well-rounded learners.

As we contemplate the integration of old and new, it's important to recognize the potential of AI to transform education in numerous ways, including:


  • Providing personalized and adaptive learning experiences for students of different abilities, interests, and backgrounds. AI can help teachers tailor instruction and feedback to each student’s needs and goals, as well as offer additional support and resources. For example, AI tutors can deliver knowledge directly into students’ brains, or use natural language processing to assess students’ understanding and provide guidance.

  • Enhancing teachers’ professional development and collaboration. AI can help teachers improve their pedagogical skills, access relevant data and research, and connect with other educators around the world. For example, AI can analyze teachers’ performance and provide suggestions for improvement, or facilitate online communities of practice.

  • Expanding access and equity in education. AI can help overcome barriers such as distance, cost, language, and disability that prevent many people from receiving quality education. For example, AI can enable virtual reality and augmented reality experiences that simulate real-world environments and situations, or assist students with learning differences through speech recognition, text-to-speech, and other technologies.

  • Fostering creativity and innovation in education. AI can help students develop higher-order cognitive skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and collaboration. AI can also inspire students to explore new domains and express themselves in various ways. For example, AI can generate novel questions and challenges for students to solve, or support students’ artistic and musical endeavors.


However, AI also poses significant risks and challenges for education, such as:

  • Exacerbating existing inequalities and biases in education. AI may widen the gap between those who have access to advanced technology and those who do not. AI may also reflect or amplify the biases and prejudices of its creators or users, such as racism, sexism, or elitism. For example, some AI systems may favor certain groups of students over others based on their data or algorithms, or exclude or harm students who do not fit the normative assumptions of the system.

  • Threatening privacy and security in education. AI may collect and use large amounts of personal data from students and teachers without their consent or awareness. AI may also be vulnerable to hacking or manipulation by malicious actors who seek to exploit or harm the system or its users. For example, some AI systems may leak or sell students’ data to third parties for commercial or political purposes, or be hacked by cybercriminals who want to disrupt or sabotage the system. As we build cybersecurity programs to train the next generation of workers, we will need to be able to adapt our curriculum and techniques much faster than we ever have.

In the evolving landscape of education and technology, the role of memorization is a pertinent question. In my role and age, I see a balanced approach that integrates both tradition and innovation. It will be interesting if future leaders will see a different vision as technology evolves in society. Memorization has its merits, aiding information retention and critical thinking. Yet, with AI and large language models like ChatGPT, we have instant access to vast knowledge. While this challenges memorization's necessity, we must avoid overreliance on AI, which can hinder critical thinking and context understanding.


AI offers personalized learning, supports teachers' growth, and enhances access to education. However, we must address issues like bias and privacy concerns.

In conclusion, we should blend traditional methods with technology to create a dynamic education system. Memorization remains valuable, but we must adapt to a changing world. By striking this balance, we can effectively prepare students for the future, inspiring leaders and equipping them with 21st-century skills.




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